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Goal: investigations and targeted actions


  • to examine particular or suspected pressures in greater detail
  • provide information for designing management actions / interventions
  • identify sources of pollution


  • monitoring programme tailored to specific circumstances
  • likely to be more targeted – spatially, temporally or thematically
  • more exacting data quality requirements – need high degree of confidence and/or to detect small changes
  • likely to employ higher cost / more accurate techniques
  • more comprehensive training required
  • greater level of commitment required from volunteers
  • Quality Control / Quality Assurance given greater emphasis  
  • linked to some kind of action (e.g. remediation / mitigation / restoration projects)
  • likely to be for a limited duration, long enough to provide required certainty but not indefinite
  • could form part of BACI design (Before – After – Control – Impact)
  • may be influenced by Ecosystem Health Screening monitoring programmes or pre-existing data or assessments (e.g. Water Framework Directive)
  • some degree of detailed data analysis and reporting required


  • iWharfe Upper – identifying sources of faecal bacteria on the Upper River Wharfe. Citizen sampling with lab analysis (Tier 3)
  • iWharfe Eco-Ashlands project – impact of unteated and treated effluent from Ilkley STW on the ecology of the R. Wharfe. Citizen sampling with lab analysis for water chemistry, diatom algae and aquatic macroinvertebrates.
  • Wye Alliance Citizen Science – structured monitoring with a focus on identifying source of nutrient pollution to R. Wye
Updated on January 9, 2024

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